Definitions for: Turbine

[n] rotary engine in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid is converted into mechanical energy by causing a bladed rotor to rotate

Webster (1913) Definition: Tur"bine, n.
A form of steam engine analogous in construction and action
to the water turbine. There are practically only two distinct
kinds, and they are typified in the de Laval and the Parsons
and Curtis turbines. The

de Laval turbine is an impulse turbine, in which steam
impinges upon revolving blades from a flared nozzle. The
flare of the nozzle causes expansion of the steam, and
hence changes its pressure energy into kinetic energy. An
enormous velocity (30,000 revolutions per minute in the 5
H. P. size) is requisite for high efficiency, and the
machine has therefore to be geared down to be of practical
use. Some recent development of this type include turbines
formed of several de Laval elements compounded as in the
ordinary expansion engine. The

Parsons turbine is an impulse-and-reaction turbine, usually
of the axial type. The steam is constrained to pass
successively through alternate rows of fixed and moving
blades, being expanded down to a condenser pressure of
about 1 lb. per square inch absolute. The

Curtis turbine is somewhat simpler than the Parsons, and
consists of elements each of which has at least two rows
of moving blades and one row of stationary. The bucket
velocity is lowered by fractional velocity reduction. Both
the Parsons and Curtis turbines are suitable for driving
dynamos and steamships directly. In efficiency, lightness,
and bulk for a given power, they compare favorably with
reciprocating engines.

Tur"bine, n. [L. turbo, -inis, that which spins or
whirls round, whirl.]
A water wheel, commonly horizontal, variously constructed,
but usually having a series of curved floats or buckets,
against which the water acts by its impulse or reaction in
flowing either outward from a central chamber, inward from an
external casing, or from above downward, etc.; -- also called
turbine wheel.

Note: In some turbines, the water is supplied to the wheel
from below, instead of above. Turbines in which the
water flows in a direction parallel to the axis are
called parallel-flow turbines.

See Also: blade, gas turbine, hydroelectric turbine, impulse turbine, reaction turbine, rotary engine, rotor, rotor coil, stator, stator coil, steam turbine, vane

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